Spelling Plurals Ending in -s

To make the plural form of a noun, we add -s

Singular and Plural
Singular (1) Plural (2+)
book books
tree trees

Words Ending in 'y'

There are different rules for words ending in 'y' depending on the letter before the 'y'

Words With Consonant + 'y'

If the word ends with a consonant + 'y', you remove the 'y' and add -ies.

Nouns Ending in Consonant + 'y'
Singular (1) Plural (2+)
baby babies
fly flies

Words ending in consonant + 'y' usually have an /iː/ or an /аɪ/ sound.

Words With Vowel + 'y'

If the word ends in a vowel + 'y', we just add -s.

Nouns Ending in Vowel + 'y'
Singular (1) Plural (2+)
tray trays
toy toys

Vowels are the letters 'a', 'e', 'i', 'o', and 'u'. All other letters are consonants.

Words Ending in 'sh', 'ch', 's', 'x', and 'z'

For words ending in 'sh', 'ch', 's', and 'x', we add -es

Nouns Ending in 'sh', 'ch', 's', and 'x'
Singular (1) Plural (2+)
brush brushes
church churches
kiss kisses
box boxes

For words ending in 'z', we double the z and add -es.

Nouns Ending in 'z'
Singular (1) Plural (2+)
quiz quizzes

Words Ending in 'o'

For some words ending in 'o' we add -s and for some we add -es.

Nouns Ending in 'o' with -s
Singular (1) Plural (2+)
piano pianos
casino casinos
Nouns Ending in 'o' with -es
Singular (1) Plural (2+)
potato potatoes
tomato tomatoes

For words ending in a vowel + 'o', we always add -s.

Nouns Ending in vowel +'o'
Singular (1) Plural (2+)
stereo stereos
studio studios

If you are not sure whether to add -s or -es, check your dictionary.

Words Ending in 'f' or 'fe'

For many words ending in 'f' and 'fe', we remove the 'f' or 'fe' and add -ves.

Nouns Ending in 'f' and 'fe'
Singular (1) Plural (2+)
leaf leaves
wife wives

For some words ending in 'f', we just add -s

Nouns Ending in 'f' and 'fe'
Singular (1) Plural (2+)
cliff cliffs
proof proofs

If you are not sure whether to add -s or -ves, check your dictionary.

Irregular Plurals

These spelling rules only work for regular plural nouns. See the irregular plurals list to learn how to spell irregular plurals.

Learn more about making and using plurals.