Spelling Plurals Ending in -s

To make the plural form of a noun, we add -s

Singular and Plural
Singular (1)Plural (2+)
bookbooks
treetrees

Words Ending in 'y'

There are different rules for words ending in 'y' depending on the letter before the 'y'

Words With Consonant + 'y'

If the word ends with a consonant + 'y', you remove the 'y' and add -ies.

Nouns Ending in Consonant + 'y'
Singular (1)Plural (2+)
babybabies
flyflies

Words ending in consonant + 'y' usually have an /iː/ or an /аɪ/ sound.

Words With Vowel + 'y'

If the word ends in a vowel + 'y', we just add -s.

Nouns Ending in Vowel + 'y'
Singular (1)Plural (2+)
traytrays
toytoys

Vowels are the letters 'a', 'e', 'i', 'o', and 'u'. All other letters are consonants.

Words Ending in 'sh', 'ch', 's', 'x', and 'z'

For words ending in 'sh', 'ch', 's', and 'x', we add -es

Nouns Ending in 'sh', 'ch', 's', and 'x'
Singular (1)Plural (2+)
brushbrushes
churchchurches
kisskisses
boxboxes

For words ending in 'z', we double the z and add -es.

Nouns Ending in 'z'
Singular (1)Plural (2+)
quizquizzes

Words Ending in 'o'

For some words ending in 'o' we add -s and for some we add -es.

Nouns Ending in 'o' with -s
Singular (1)Plural (2+)
pianopianos
casinocasinos
Nouns Ending in 'o' with -es
Singular (1)Plural (2+)
potatopotatoes
tomatotomatoes

For words ending in a vowel + 'o', we always add -s.

Nouns Ending in vowel +'o'
Singular (1)Plural (2+)
stereostereos
studiostudios

If you are not sure whether to add -s or -es, check your dictionary.

Words Ending in 'f' or 'fe'

For many words ending in 'f' and 'fe', we remove the 'f' or 'fe' and add -ves.

Nouns Ending in 'f' and 'fe'
Singular (1)Plural (2+)
leafleaves
wifewives

For some words ending in 'f', we just add -s

Nouns Ending in 'f' and 'fe'
Singular (1)Plural (2+)
cliffcliffs
proofproofs

If you are not sure whether to add -s or -ves, check your dictionary.

Irregular Plurals

These spelling rules only work for regular plural nouns. See the irregular plurals list to learn how to spell irregular plurals.

Learn more about making and using plurals.


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